Day1

  • University of Chicago, USA
  • Title:Modeling the Origins of Small Cell Lung Cancer from Human Embryonic Stem Cells
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Abstract:
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) remains a major challenge in public health because of its frequency, its lethality, and the paucity of convenient models for exploring its pathogenesis and potential therapeutic vulnerabilities. Despite recent research advances, fundamental features of SCLC, especially its initiation and progression, are not fully understood. One of the main obstacles is the development of a feasible and tractable system that allows molecular events to be evaluated for their functional changes towards the hallmarks of neoplasia during lung lineage differentiation.
To understand how and why certain constellations of genetic changes drive carcinogenesis in specialized human cell lineages, we are developing cell culture models based on directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). In this report, we show for the first time that up to 10 percent of lung progenitor cells derived from hESCs can be induced to form pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs), the putative normal precursors to SCLCs, by inhibition of NOTCH signaling. In such cultures, reduction of the retinoblastoma (RB) protein, the product of a tumor suppression gene commonly mutated in SCLCs, significantly expanded the number of PNECs. But reduction of TP53 protein, the product of another tumor suppressor gene uniformly mutated in SCLCs, or expression of mutant KRAS or EGFR genes, each of which is commonly found in human lung adenocarcinomas, did not induce or expand PNECs, suggesting a lineage-specific sensitivity to loss of RB function. Subcutaneous injection of PNEC-containing cultures in which expression of both RB and TP53 was blocked produced tumors resembling early stage SCLC in immunodeficient mice. Single-cell RNA profiles of PNECs were heterogeneous; when RB levels are reduced, the profiles show similarities to RNA profiles from early stage SCLC. Taken together, these findings suggest that genetic manipulation of hESC-derived pulmonary cells will enable studies of the initiation, progression, and treatment of this recalcitrant cancer.
Biography:
Dr.Huanhuan Joyce Chen has received her Pharm.D. degree in Pharmaceutical Sciences at Zhejiang University in China, M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Biomedical Engineering at Cornell University. She will be enrolled as an Assistant Professor in Pritzker School of molecular engineering and the Ben May department for cancer research at The University of Chicago in May 2020, and is currently a postdoctoral fellow with Dr. Harold Varmus at Weill Cornell Medicine. She received a number of awards including NIH Pathway to Independence Award (K99/R00), Arnold O. Beckman Postdoctoral Fellowship, National Cancer Institute Physical Sciences in Oncology Young Investigator award and National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship. She has published more than 19 papers in reputed journals, including Nature Biotechnology, Nature Medicine, Nature Communication, Cell Stem Cell, Journal of Experimental Medicine, Journal of Clinical Investigation, Lab on Chip and eLife. Her research is focused on stem cell technology and tissue engineering for modeling and studying cell biology and genetic diseases.

  • Sapporo Medical University, Japan
  • Title:Leucine Rich Repeats in Proteins from NCLDVs
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Abstract:
Leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) occur in tandem and the repeat unit lengths (RULs) in general range from 20 to 29 residues. Seven LRR classes have been recognized. A comprehensive sequence analysis of viral LRRs has been done. Most proteins are from nucleocytoplasmic large dsDNA viruses (NCLDVs). The RULs of several LRR types are one to five residues shorter than those of the known, corresponding LRR types. Surprisingly, the RUL of 19 residues which is the shortest among all LRRs are identified in some LRR types. Unique LRR motifs are also observed. The present findings provide a new perspective on the origin and evolution of LRRs.
Biography:
Dr. Norio Matsushima is Professor Emeritus of Sapporo Medical University. He received his Ph.D. in polymer physics at Hokkaido University in 1976. He joined Sapporo Medical University from 1983. In 1986-1988 he joined the University of Virginia, USA. He studied the structure and evolution of protein tandem repeats including leucine-rich repeats and also developed the HEFIT program for fitting helices. He has published over 100 papers in peer reviewed journals and a book. He is the editorial board member of “Protein and Peptide Letters”.

  • Department of Surgery, Taiwan
  • Title:Colo-enteric Fistula associated with diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma that resulted in Gastrointestinal Bleeding : A case report and literature review
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Abstract:
The most common symptoms of primary gastrointestinal (GI) lymphoma are non-specific, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, weight loss, and abdominal pain. The rare acute symptoms include bowel obstruction, intussusception, and perforation. Primary small bowel lymphoma accounts for the smallest proportion of all GI malignancies. We report a case of intestinal lymphoma presenting with bloody stools and anemia. The patient initially underwent both duodenoscopy and colonoscopy with negative findings. Isotopic red blood cell (RBC) scan was then performed due to persistent bleeding along with computed tomography angiography (CTA) because of suspected bleeding in the left abdomen. Successful embolization over the arcade of the sigmoid and left colic arteries was performed. However, the bleeding did not stop, and ischemic colitis was diagnosed by repeat colonoscopy. A coloenteric fistula was finally discovered during emergent laparotomy. This is a rare condition that has not been previously described in Taiwan. Early diagnosis and timely management will decrease morbidity and mortality in the GI lymphoma population.
Biography:
Shih-Wei Chiang, M.D. is visiting staff of Colorectal surgery. He completed his coloproctology residency at the Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung where he served as chief resident during his final year. He is board certified in coloproctology and colorectal surgery. His academic interests include colorectal surgery, colorectal cancer and laparoscopic surgery.

  • SDVS Sangh’s, S. S. Arts College and T. P. Science Institute, India
  • Title:A Quantitative Method for the Detection and Validation of Catalase activity at Physiological Concentration in Human Serum, Plasma and Erythrocytes Samples
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Abstract:
A novel method has been proposed to develop a simple, rapid, sensitive and affordable chromogenic attempt for the quantification of catalase (CAT) activity in blood samples. The method is based on the oxidation of pyrocatechol (PC) to give quinone form which by oxidative coupling with aminyl radical of 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AAP) resulting from H2O2/CAT to produce a pink colored quinone-imine product with λmax=530 nm in a 100 mmol/L of tris buffer of pH 9.8 at room temperature (30 ºC). The linearity of CAT assay was between 0.316 and 10 U/mL. The accuracy ranges for CAT having concentrations of 1.25, 5 and 7.5 μmol/L were 89-105.52, 90–107%, and 91–104.58 % respectively. Within-run and between-run precision studies showed CV’s of 1.98 – 3.02 % (n=7) and 2.97 – 4.40 % (n=7), respectively. The detection and quantification limits of CAT were 0.12 and 0.225 μmol/L, respectively. The Michaelis-Menten constant and maximum velocity of the reaction was = 1.052 mM and = 0.168 μmol/min, respectively. The present method provides a convenient means for investigating the usefulness of CAT measurements in biological sample assessing the potential for free radical-induced pathology.
Keywords: Somatic oxidant defense; catalase assay; serum catalase; erythrocytes; oxidative coupling.
Biography:
Dr. Honnur Krishna received his PhD degree in enzyme assays from the University of Mysore, Mysore under the guidance of Prof. P. Nagaraja, Professor of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Studies in Chemistry, University of Mysore. He currently works as an Assistant Professor of Chemistry, SDVS Sangh’s, S. S. Arts College and T. P. Science Institute, at Sankeshwar affiliated to Rani Channamma University, Belagavi district, Karnataka state, from India. His research focuses on analytical method development and its validation for the clinically important biomarkers for better understanding of the biochemical pathways and also for different environmental analytes. He is also interested in DFT studies for prediction of chemical reactions insight through computational chemical approach; aptamers based sensors, nano technological applications and its sensing applications.

  • SDVS Sangh’s, S. S. Arts College and T. P. Science Institute, India
  • Title:A simple Uric Acid assay by using 3-hydroxytyramine as a Chromogenic Sensor in Human Serum Samples
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Abstract:
A simple, fast, sensitive, convenient and economical accurate enzymatic chromogenic sensor is developed for the quantification of clinically important biomarker uric acid (UA) in human serum samples. The method is based on quantification of UA using 3-hydroxytyramine (3-HT) as a novel chromogenic substrate by using Peroxidase (POD) and, Uricase (UOx) in the presence of dissolved oxygen. UOx catalyzes the oxidation of UA where H2O2 is generated in-situ to produce allointon, and CO2. The POD in oxidative coupling of peroxide in presence of 3-HT, forms an intense orange colored product with λmax at 500 nm. The reaction was carried out in citric acid-tripotassium-citrate buffer (12.5 mM) of pH 6.8 at room temperature. The standard curve for UA was found linear in the range of 12.3–297.3 μM and 3.07–396.5 μM by rate and fixed time method, respectively. The apparent molar absorptivity for UA was 0.1003×104 L/mol/cm and its determination has a CV of 2.87 (n=6). The LOD and LOQ for UA were 1.5 μM and 2.9 μM, respectively. Within-day precision was 1.50–3.07 % (n = 7) and day-to-day precision was 3.10–4.16 % (n = 7). The accuracy ranges for UA having concentrations of 24.7 μM, 198 μM and 297.3 μM were 87-101.50 %, 90-105 % and 89-107 % respectively. The UA recovery range by the proposed method was 87-107 % with a mean recovery of 96.87 %. The proposed method has good correlation coefficient of 0.981 with the standard method. This is a rapid and convenient method to determine serum UA using simple spectrophotometer with excellent recovery and minimal interference by interferants with low detection limits. Therefore, this method can be automated for flow injection or high-throughput or ELISA based assays in clinical diagnostic laboratories.
Keywords: Uric acid, Enzymatic, Clinical biomarker, Oxidative coupling, Serum analysis
Abbreviations used: UA: uric acid; 3-HT: 3-hydroxytyramine; POD: Peroxidase; UOx: Uricase; CV: Co-efficient of variations; LOD: limits of detection; LOQ: limits of quantification
Biography:
Dr. Vijaylakshmi Edalli received her PhD degree in Biodegradation and bio-remediations using enzymes, from the Karnatak University, Dharwad, under the guidance of Prof. C. M. Kamanavalli, Professor of Bio-Chemistry, Karnatak University, Dharwad. She is currently works as an Assistant Professor of Chemistry, in SDVS Sangh’s, S. S. Arts College and T. P. Science Institute, at Sankeshwar affiliated to Rani Channamma University, Belagavi district, Karnataka state, from India. Her research focuses on environmental bio-remediation studies and method development based on enzyme assays. She is also interested in nano technological and its sensing applications.

  • National Research center of Egypt, Egypt
  • Title:Bio-modulated Mice Epithelial Endometrial Organoids by low-level Laser Therapy Serves as an Invitro Model for Endometrial Regeneration
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Abstract:
Endometrial regeneration is a dynamic process that is not well understood. The destruction of the endometrium with the formation of intrauterine adhesions is known as Asherman’s syndrome. The lesions range from minor to severe adhesions and their impact on pregnancy is well documented. Operative hysteroscopy is the mainstay of diagnosis and treatment of intrauterine adhesions. Nevertheless, the recurrence rates remain high. It was recorded that low-level laser therapy in low doses has a stimulatory effect on different tissues while the high dose produces a suppressive effect. Organoid is a three-dimensional assembly that displays architectures and functionalities similar to in vivo organs that are being developed from human or animal stem cells or organ-specific progenitors through a self-organization process. Our prospective was to study the effect of Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) on mouse epithelial endometrial organoids regarding cell proliferation and endometrial regeneration as a new modality of treatment. An in vitro clinical trial to generate mouse epithelial organoid model and testing LLLT using He:Ne 632.8 nm device on organoids proliferation, function, and their response to ovarian hormones was performed. Trying endometrial regeneration by culturing organoids with decellularized uterine matrix (DUM) and studying the LLLT effect on the regeneration process. LLLT produced a proliferative effect on the epithelial mouse organoids confirmed by Ki67 and PCNA IHC. The organoids could regenerate the epithelial layer of the endometrium in vitro on DUM and LLLT could help in this process. In conclusion, organoids whether control or bio-stimulated proved a new modality to regenerate the endometrium.
Biography:
Mona Gebril is a Researcher of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Reproductive Health department, National Research Center of Egypt. She obtained her MBBCh from Cairo University School of Medicine, then got Master degree in Obstetrics and Gynecology and PhD in Laser application in Gynecology, Cairo University. She had her Ph.D. Joint Supervision Scholarship from Culture Affairs and Mission Sector, Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research in Egypt for three years in Tokyo University Graduate School of Medicine. Her interested in endometrial physiology, receptivity and regeneration. She Succeeded to generate endometrial epithelial organoids mice model for this purpose.

  • University of Sannio, Italy
  • Title:Iodothyronines and Body Adiposity: a Focus on White Adipose Tissue
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Abstract:
Iodothyronines are potent regulators of white adipose tissue functions and development. Endogenous 3,3’,5-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) regulates lipolysis, lipogenesis, thermogenesis, and mitochondrial functions. However, excess of T3 induces heart rhythm abnormalities, muscle wasting, and reduced bone density, so that applying this hormone as a pharmacological compound has been discouraged in obesity and related diseases. 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (3,5-T2) seems to act through nuclear thyroid hormone receptors-independent pathways, with mitochondria as a likely cellular target. Specifically, 3,5-T2, when administered to rats receiving a high-fat diet (HFD), increases energy expenditure and prevents HFD-induced adiposity, without inducing alterations of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis, and of skeletal muscle and heart mass. In HFD rats, by a combined approach, including large-scale expression profile and functional analyses, we demonstrated that 3,5-T2 has an anti adipogenic/lipogenic potential, in vivo modulating adipose tissue proteome, affecting proteins involved in lipid storage, oxidative stress, and lipogenesis-associated mitochondrial function. All this, combined with the previously described increased oxidative capacity of liver, expands on the notion of the prevention of fat mass-gain by 3,5-T2 and contributes to further explaining the action of this intriguing naturally occurring thyroid hormone metabolite.
Biography:
Dr.Elena Silvestri Born in Benevento, Italy. Associate professor of Physiology, University of Sannio, Benevento, Italy. Research themes: a) peripheral mediators of thyroid hormone action: diiodothyronines; b) mitochondria and cellular thermogenesis; c) thyroid hormones and uncoupling proteins; d) proteomics of metabolically active animal tissues under physio–pathological conditions (thyroid states, obesity, ageing, AD). Editorial activity Reviewer for several international journals. Co-Guest Editor for special issues of Nutrients and Frontiers in Endocrinology. Fellows – Since 2006 she is member of the Italian Physiology Society and since 2013 member of the European Thyroid Association (ETA). Awards – September 2021 – The ETA Max Pierre König Poster Award, in recognition of the best poster in basic thyroidology: Differential deranged liver pathways in genetically determined thyroid dysfunctions: intra- and extrahepatic factors, at the 43rd Annual Meeting of the Association 4th – 7th September 2021 -September 2008 – National Award for young researchers in Physiology (Società Italiana di Fisiologia) -July 2006 – The Italian Proteomic Association, Pisa, Italy. Beckam Coulter Aword in Proteomics (BeCap Beckman) 3,5,3′-Triiodo-L- Thyronine And Rat Liver Mitochondria Phenotype: A Proteomic Approach.

  • Nassau University Medical Center,USA
  • Title:COVID-19 Suspected Myopericarditis without Pulmonary Involvement
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Abstract:
Myopericarditis is a rare consequence of COVID-19 infection. Although extremely rare, COVID-19 can present without pulmonary involvement, and there have been reports of isolated cardiac involvement in one prior case
We report a case of a young African American man presenting with myopericarditis following a recently recovered COVID-19 infection. Complicated by ICU admission requiring vasopressors; with eventual resolution following initiation of aspirin and colchicine for myopericarditis.
Life threatening myopericarditis can occur following resolution of COVID-19 disease. The degree of cardiac involvement correlates poorly to the severity of pulmonary involvement.
Biography:
Dr. Steven Mirabella is an industrious 3rd year Internal Medicine Resident completing training at a busy New York hospital in Long Island. He has extensive clinical experience managing COVID-19 infection. He has given multiple poster presentations at the American College of Physicians (ACP) Scientific meetings; as well as the 15th Annual Medical Society of the State of New York (MSSNY) Resident/ Fellow Poster Symposium in Tarrytown New York. Most recently he was awarded first place along with his colleagues at the 2021 American College of Osteopathic Internists (ACOI) Resident/Fellow Case Presentation Contest in Orlando, Florida, USA. He was enthralled to be able to share his recently published work and experience with such a wide audience.

  • Indiana University, USA
  • Title:eys+/-; lrp5+/- Zebrafish Reveal Lrp5 as a Strong Candidate for the Receptor of All-Trans Retinol in the Visual Cycle
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Abstract:
Vision is essential for vertebrates including humans. Sustained vision is accomplished by the retinoid metabolism, ‘visual cycle’, where all-trans retinol (atROL) is released from photoreceptors upon light absorption and is incorporated into the adjacent retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). In the process, a receptor of atROL is assumed; however, the entity has been missing for a decade. In my talk, I would like to give a presentation about our recent finding showing that low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-related receptor-5 (Lrp5) protein is a strong candidate for the receptor of atROL in the visual cycle (Takita and Seko, iScience 2020; 23(12): 101762). We generated and analyzed the digenic eyes shut homolog (eys)+/-; lrp5+/- zebrafish, the same form of gene defects emerged from a human case report of a candidate retinitis pigmentosa, the most common genetic disorder in inherited retinal dystrophies. The mutant photoreceptor cell layer (PRCL) was mildly thinner than the wild-type PRCL and global gene expression analysis revealed that the hallmark was remarkable decrease in the expression level of the retinol binding protein 1a (rbp1a) gene. The genetic interaction study using rbp1a-/- and lrp5-/- zebrafish eyes clarified that rbp1a gene played a role downstream of lrp5 gene. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that Lrp5 protein was colocalized with Rbp1a protein at the microvilli of RPE cells in the outer retina. Furthermore, in vitro binding assay using full-length Rbp1a protein and C-terminal intracellular region of Lrp5 protein revealed that they directly bound each other. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that Lrp5 protein is a potent candidate of the receptor of atROL in the visual cycle. This work also indicates that combination of detection and comprehensive analysis of polygenic inheritance could be a powerful tool to dissect molecular networks such as protein-protein interactions and protein complexes not only in vision but also in other fields of biology and medicine.
Biography:
Dr.Shimpei Takita has primarily worked on vision having interests in identification of key genes important for specialised sensory neurons and their supporting cells (i) to be specialised for detecting external stimuli and (ii) to be finely-organised and well-maintained.

  • University of Silesia, Poland
  • Title:Oxidative Stress in Hemolymph and Migdut Cells of the Beet Armyworm Spodoptera Exigua Selected towards Cd Tolerance
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Abstract:
Cadmium toxicity to animals depends on their tolerance mechanisms. The harmful action of this metal takes different forms, starting from blocking of intracellular signalling receptors, through induction of oxidative stress, to genotoxic effects.
Cadmium tolerance developed in an unique strain of the moth Spodoptera exigua selected for over 170 generations in Institute of Biology, Biotechnology and Environmental Protection, University of Silesia in Katowice can be based on many mechanisms at both: cellular and molecular level. It cannot be excluded that multigenerational exposure to Cd may lead to the selection of insects that have a wider tolerance to oxidative stress.
Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are molecules present in cells undergoing oxidative stress. Oxidative stress level was measured in the hemolymph and midgut cells of the 5th larval stage after 1–6, 12, 18 and 24 generations of differential cadmium exposure in comparison with insects after multigenerational exposure (170 generations) and control strain. The assay used in present studies was to detect the relative percentage of cells that are ROS negative and positive. Thanks that, two populations of cells can be distinguished: live (ROS-) cells and cells exhibiting ROS (ROS+).
The pattern of the cell populations percentage/ratio in both hemolymph and midgut cells depend on the concentration of this metal in the food and the time of Cd exposure.
Biography:
Dr. Monika Tarnawska is working in the Institute of Biology, Biotechnology and Environmental Protection, University of Silesia in Katowice, Poland. Major scientific interests of her are: ecotoxicology of terrestrial invertebrates, especially crop pests, activity and immunodetection of general stress proteins. Results of her works are published in prestigious journals, including: Fish & Shellfish Immunology, Chemosphere, Ecotoxicology, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, International Journal of Pest Management and others.

  • University of Alexandria, Egypt
  • Title:Short-Term Side Effects of Sofosbuvir on the Mitochondrial Biogenesis of Young Female Rats and Prenatal Embryos.
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Abstract:
Hepatitis C virus infection is endemic in Egypt with the highest prevalence rate in the world. Without treatment, most acute infections lead to chronic, followed by cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Sofosbuvir acts like a nucleos(t)ide analogue that specifically inhibits hepatitis C virus replication. Our study aimed to explore the molecular mechanisms and the possible side effects of the therapeutic dose of sofosbuvir on mitochondrial biogenesis and functions of liver, muscle and ovary tissues of young normal female rats and explore the possible prenatal effect of Sofosbuvir on the embryos of the exposed mother. The study was conducted on female albino rats 2 months old that was classified into 2 groups. Group I (Control group): 20 healthy female rats and Group II (exposed group): 20 female rats that was supplemented with 4 mg/kg of sofosbuvir drug for 3 months. At the end of the treatment period, 10 normal and 10 exposed female rats will be sacrificed and dissected out to obtain blood, ovary, liver and muscles. Pregnancy will be induced in 10 control females and 10 exposed females by mating with healthy male rats overnight. At gestational day 17 (GD 17) pregnant control females and pregnant exposed females will be sacrificed by cervical dislocation. The embryos with their membranes and placentas will be quickly dissected out of the uterine horns. Each embryo will be dissected to obtain the fetal liver, and muscles. The reported toxicity was mediated through suppression of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator- 1alpha (PGC-1α), mitochondria transcription factor A that impair mitochondrial biogenesis that manifested a decline in mitochondrial DNA copy number. Also, sofosbuvir suppresses the expression of DNA polymerase γ and declines the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit-5 content that impair the mitochondrial functions. According to our results, the ovarian tissue is the most affected organ followed by the liver and placenta while muscle tissue appears to resist sofosbuvir-induced mitochondrial toxicity. In conclusion, the effects of sofosbuvir on the ovarian mitochondrial biogenesis and functions was found to not just affect the exposed females but unfortunately may have long-lasting consequences by impairing the embryonic development and transfer these mitochondrial abnormalities to next generations.
Biography:
Dr. Rana Hassan Mahmoud Hassan Khafaga, born on 4\11\1989.She completed her graduation, Class of 2012, Alexandria University, Faculty of science, Biochemistry Department,currently she is Assistant lecturer at Biochemistry department at Medical Research Institute (MRI), Alexandria University, Egypt and she is a student in Ph.D degree in MRI Alexandria University since February 2018 and Working on a Project accepted by STDF organization titled by: Short-term and long-term trans-generational side effects of Sofosbuvir: Experimental study on female rats, 2019. She has attended many international conferences and has many awards.

  • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Greece
  • Title:Fetal Heterozygosity for Both Hb G-Hsi-Tsou and Beta Thalassemia: A case report
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Abstract:
This case report describes a fetus with compound heterozygosity for Hb G-Hsi-Tsou and beta thalassemia, diagnosed in a healthy pregnancy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented case of compound heterozygosity and the woman is the second known case of heterozygosity for Hb G-Hsi-Tsou. A 34-year-old woman during her first pregnancy underwent routine early pregnancy screening and several tests were performed. All tests were normal, with the exception of hemoglobin electrophoresis, which revealed heterozygosity for Hb G-Hsi-Tsou. Hemoglobin G-Hsi-Tsou constitutes a hemoglobin variant with a structural abnormality of the beta chain, first described in 1972, but since then no other cases have been reported. After finding out that her husband was heterozygous for beta thalassemia, chorionic villus sampling revealed the embryo’s heterozygosity for both Hb G-Hsi-Tsou and beta thalassemia. Due to lack of scientific data, the couple decided to end the pregnancy. It was not possible to determine whether the fetus would present serious deficiencies in hematopoiesis, as Hb G-Hsi-Tsou is a variant which is not yet fully understood. What made this case even more complex was the simultaneous presence of the beta thalassemia allele.
Biography:
Maria Androulaki graduated from the Department of Medicine, University of Patras, Greece, in 2019. She is currently in her first year of Obstetrics and Gynecology residency at General Hospital of Messinia, Kalamata, Greece. During her medical studies, she completed clinical internships at the Department of General Surgery at Zagazig University Hospital in Egypt and at the Department of General Surgery, Antoine-Béclère Hospital in Paris, France. Her main domain of interest is maternal-fetal medicine.

  • Umm-Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia
  • Title:New Records of Indigofera CordifoliaHeyne ex Roth. (Fabales: Fabaceae) in Saudi Arabia based on Morphological and Molecular Evidence
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Abstract:
Indigofera cordifolia Heyne ex Roth. so far is reported only in the Arabian Peninsula from Oman. A recent field expedition in the Farasan Archipelago, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea, resulted in documentation of this species in Dumsuk Island. Morphological examination and molecular identification based on the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region of this plant species was investigated in this study. The result show that the internal transcribed spacer had high species-level discrimination efficiency for the identification of Indigofera cordifolia that may provide help in authentic identification and management process of this rare and nationally endangered species.

  • Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden Research Institute, Brazil
  • Title:Trichomes in Mimosa(Leguminosae): Towards a Characterization and a Terminology Standardization.
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Abstract:
Mimosa, one of the most species-rich genera in the Leguminosae, exhibits a high diversity of trichomes. These structures are considered crucial to the taxonomy of the genus and are commonly used to delimit infrageneric groups. The last taxonomic revision by Rupert C. Barneby, published in 1991, provided an important reference in the understanding of trichomes in Mimosa, but some terminology still needs to be clarified and standardized. The present study describes the microstructure and anatomy of trichomes in Mimosa and suggests a terminological standardization for these structures in the genus. We examined the trichomes of 62 species and the terms used to classify them were compared with previous taxonomic studies in the genus. We recognize 15 types of trichomes primarily based on the number, arrangement, and secretory activity of cells (uni- versus multicellular, uni- versus multiseriate, simple versus branched, glandular versus non-glandular). We conclude that the type of trichomes, rather than the type of indumentum, should be used for comparative analyses.
Biography:
Prof. Lucas Sa Barreto Jordao is a Biologist, began his academic studies at the Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden (JBRJ) during its graduation studying taxonomy of the genus Mimosa (Leguminosae). Obtained a master’s degree in Botany at the National Museum of Brazil in 2013 with a dissertation on floristic and taxonomic studies of Mimosa in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and a doctorate in Botany at the JBRJ in 2019 with a thesis on phylogenetic studies based on molecular data and a taxonomic revision of four series of the genus. In 2016, he held an exchange where he worked at the New York Botanical Garden on the Reflora Project in which he digitized specimens from Brazilian flora stored at the NY herbarium, while developing part of his doctoral research. In 2019,he completed a post-doctorate at JBRJ exploring the use of many phylogenetic and biogeographic tools. He worked as a biology teacher in elementary and high school for six years. He also worked as a consultant in floristic surveys, forest inventories and botanical identification and, currently, he is a professor of Botany, Forensic Botany and Brazilian Environmental Law in a preparatory course for application processes of government jobs, and in a specialization course (“Post-graduation lato sensu”). Since March 2020, he has worked at National Center for Flora Conservation/JBRJ assessing endangered species. His interest in trichomes arose from the need to understand the morphological diversity of Mimosa.

  • University Hospital of Cologne, Germany
  • Title:Exosomal ncRNAs, Novel Frontier of Tumor Detection by Liquid Biopsies
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Abstract
Locally advanced adeno- and squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagous (EAC, ESCC) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) result in worse prognosis upon late diagnosis. We aim to identify tumor indicating ncRNAs in serum exosomes of tumor patients for earlier non-invasive diagnosis to contribute to a better outcome.
Differential gene and protein expression comparing tumor and normal tissues identified diagnostic, response predictive and prognostic tumor markers. Transfer to liquid biopsies now seems practicable by exosomes, components of the novel communication system of living cells. In addition to protein expressing genes, non-coding (nc-) RNAs like lnc-, circ-, and mi-RNA have been recognized as regulatory active key components with high impact for cancer development. Exosomal cargo provides an imense potential for creation of diagnostic marker signatures for earlier diagnosis. We profiled exosomal miRNAs, identified 80 exosomal miRNAs differentially concentrated between 12 OSCC tumor patients and 8 healthy blood donors. miRNome analysis was performed by TaqMan miRNA arrays. Six miRNA candidates have been selected for verification by 25 OSCC patients and 22 healthy blood donors. miR-409-3p has been identified as potential diagnostic candidate, p=0.001, fold change 0.203.
As an essiential step to detect tumor-indicative differences in exosomal cargo with better sensitivity 1. we need membrane proteins on the surface of the microvesicles, discriminating tumor cell secreted „oncosomes“ from exosomes originating from normal cells, 2. we aim to separate tumor cell derived „oncosomes“ from normal cells secreted exosomes, present in large abundance in serum of tumor patients.
By whole genome gene expression arrays we detected highly overexpressed membrane proteins as diagnostic signature which will be now examined in „oncosomal“ membranes for transfer to liquid biopsies.
Biography
Dr. Ute Warnecke-Eberz is a molecular- and microbiologist, obtained PhD at the Freie University of Berlin, Germany in 1990. She is a head of lab for antiinfectiva research at Bayer Pharmaceutical Research in Wuppertal, Germany, she develoved screening assays to find antibacterials inhibiting protein-DNA interaction. 1999 establishing the lab for molecular oncology of the General-, Visceral- and Cancer Surgery at University Hospital of Cologne, she started research on diagnostic, response predictive and prognostic tumor markers for esophageal, gastric, oral and lung cancer. Since 2017 Prof. at University Hospital of Cologne focussing on real-time quantification of gene expression, and transfer of tumor marker results to liquid biopsy format. Actually evaluating the diagnostic use
of serum exosomes and exosomal non-coding RNAs.

  • University of Montreal, Canada
  • Title:The Dual Regulatory Roles of miR-181a in Breast Cancer
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Abstract:
Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumor in females. It represents a complex heterogeneous group of tumors that display significant diversity with respect to histopathological features and therapeutic responses. Many researchers have focused on biomarkers, which will facilitate detection of breast cancer in its early stages, and microRNAs have shown immense potential for this purpose. microRNAs are a family of highly conserved noncoding single˗stranded RNA molecules of 21-25 nucleotides. microRNAs have been shown to have important roles in oncogenesis, invasion, and metastasis via epigenetic post-transcriptional gene regulation. Recent evidence indicates that the expression of miR-181a is altered in breast tumour tissues and in the serum of breast cancer patients. Some studies have demonstrated the involvement of miR-181a in the control of gene expression in breast cancer. The main thrust of this presentation is to explain the potency of miR-181a as a prognostic and/or diagnostic biomarker and to discuss the targeting therapeutics, as well as the associated challenges.
Biography:
Dr. Pierre Hardy, MD, PhD is a clinical scientist, Professor of Pediatrics, Pharmacology and Physiology at the University of Montreal who has extensive experience in translational medicine regarding solid tumors, cancer biology, gene therapy and biotechnologies (application of nanomedicines in cancer therapy). He has published over 150 papers in peer-reviewed journals. Some of his recent publications include Journal of controlled release 298 (2019): 177-185; Experimental Cell Research 386 (2020): 111737.

  • Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy,Romania
  • Title:The Frequency of HLA Alleles in the Romanian Population
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Abstract:
Knowledge of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele frequencies is essential for bone marrow and kidney donor searches. The Romanian Caucasian population is heterogeneous and information on HLA polymorphism has not been well studied. We characterized the HLA genetic profile and allele frequencies of regional populations in Romania. HLA-A, B and DRB1 alleles were examined in 8252 individuals, belonging to the four main regions of Romania. The most common alleles found in the Romanian population are: HLA-A*01, A*02, A*03, A*11, A*24; HLA-B*18, B*35, B*44, B*51 and HLA-DRB1*01, DRB1*03, DRB1*07, DRB1*11, DRB1*13, DRB1*15, DRB1*16. More than half of the alleles are non-homogeneously spread in Romania.These results provide a starting point for future analyses of genetic heterogeneity in Romania.

Biography
Dr. Ileana Constantinescu has started her medical activity as a PhD fellow at the University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff, UK, working on growth factors involved in the pathogenesis of pituitary tumours. Her interest centres arround transplantation immunology, cancer immunology and virology. She has concentrated her efforts on three challenging topics: immunogenetics, new biomarkers, new genes involved in early cancer diagnosis, prognosis, immune system genetics in various diseases. At present she is an Editor-in-chief at Immunogenetics: Open Access Journal and professor of immunology at Carol Davila Medical and Pharmacy University, Bucharest, Romania.

  • University of Szeged ,Hungary
  • Title:The Neonatal Isoform of Sarco/Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium ATPase 1 has a Paradox between its Structure and Function
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Abstract:
The neonatal splice variant of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA1b) is expressed specifically in myotubes and developing skeletal muscle1. This pump has a functional difference from its adult isoform, SERCA1a. The SERCA1a is expressed in myofibres of fast twitch muscle and has more capacity to pump against high vesicular Ca2+ concentration than SERCA1b does2. The only structural variance – the octapeptide tail in SERCA1b instead of the C-terminal glycine of SERCA1a3 – does not seem to explain the functional difference because the C-terminal tail protrudes into the sarcoplasm, not the lumen of the sarcoplasmic reticulum where the concentration of Ca2+ is accumulated4. This paradox hints to a possible regulatory mechanism exerted by micro peptides recently found abundant in developing muscle5. A developmental effect of this possible regulation will be presented.

  • Pharmaceutical University, Japan
  • Title:Chronic Epipharyngitis: a Missing Background of Autonomic Nervous System Disorder and Autoimmune Disease
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Abstract:
It has been noticed since ancient times that colds may cause all kinds of diseases. However, its underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated so far. Located at the back of the nasal cavities, the epipharynx is a unique tissue that is vulnerable to the effects of upper respiratory tract infections and air pollution. The epipharynx is an immunologically activated site even under normal conditions, and enhanced activation of innate immunity is likely to occur in response to airborne infection. In addition, the epipharynx has abundant distribution of vagal nerve fibers. Chronic epipharyngitis is not a widely understood condition. However, because of its close link with the nervous system and immune systems, it may play an important role as a trigger for the development of autoimmune diseases and neuroendocrine disorders, including chronic fatigue syndrome and other somatic symptoms. Thus, the epipharynx-brain interaction and epipharyngitis related immunity are worth consideration in managing patients with autonomic nervous disorder and patients with autoimmune disease. Given that chronic epipharyngitis and its brain interactions are not fully understood, it is important to focus future research on this condition.
Biography:
Dr. Osamu Hotta, Medical Doctor (Ph.D.-medicine), now he is a Director of Hotta Osamu Clinic, Clinical professor of Tohoku Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Councilor of Japanese Society of Nephrology, and Chairman for Japanese Focal Inflammation related Disease Research Group (JFIR). He is a nephrologist, got Medical Doctor’s degree (Ph.D) at Tohoku University in 1993.

  • University of Silesia , Poland
  • Title:Cd-Induced Autophagy Markers in Hemocytes and Gut Cells of the Moth Spodoptera Exigua of Increased Tolerance to Cadmium.
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Abstract:
Autophagy is a natural process which in physiological conditions is aimed at the elimination of destroyed or malfunctioning cell parts, organelles or molecules. Also, autophagy gets induced under stressing conditions in response to, for example, infection, starvation or oxidative stress. Cadmium as the metal regarded as highly toxic induces numerous harmful effects and reactions, including DNA damage, molecule function inhibition and oxidative stress, may also induce autophagy either directly, by interaction with molecules or indirectly through generation of free radicals. However, Cd also is known as a factor, the exposure to which may, after several generations, contribute to the selection of animal strains of increased tolerance to this element. In the Institute of Biology, Biotechnology and Environmental Protection, University of Silesia in Katowice, there is an unique strain of the moth S. exigua, selected to Cd for 170 generations (18 years). The strain exhibits cellular and organismal reactions that after the period of selection, resemble the ones noted for the control strain. Also, we have strains that are intermediate referring to both Cd concentration and time of exposure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to check whether the autophagy markers differs in insects of various Cd exposure history, including also additional acute intoxication. To reach the aim, two complementary methods: ELISA (LC3 protein level) and flow cytometry were used. Autophagy induction appeared to be significant only in the highest intensity of acute exposure.

Biography:
Dr. Agnieszka Babczynska, PhD, DSc in her research work she concentrates on relations between humans, animals and environment. As an enthusiastic ecophysiologist, in her work she apply widely understood biomarkers, from molecular markers to life history parameters, if they are able to throw a new light on the tolerance, adaptation, plasticity or selection processes of animals in response to external, especially anthropogenic factors. As animal models, she
usually uses invertebrates, with spiders and insects as her favorites. Equally eagerly she spends her scientific time in the laboratory and in the field. She is also an academic teacher and, she often organizes and takes part in popularization of researches among children and adults.

  • University of Silesia , Poland
  • Title:DNA Damage in Spodoptera Exigua after Multigenerational Cadmium Exposure - A Trade-off between Maintaining DNA Stability and Adaptation Requirements
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Abstract:
Human activity is a serious cause of huge changes in the environment and a constant reason for the emergence of new stress factors. Thus, to survive and reproduce, organisms must constantly implement a program of adaptation to continuously changing conditions. Presented here research are focused on tracking slow changes occurring in Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), that were caused by multigenerational exposure to sub- lethal cadmium doses. The insects received food containing cadmium at concentrations of 5, 11, 22 and 44 µg per g of dry mass of a food. The level of DNA stability was monitored by the Comet assay in subsequent generations, up to 36th generation. In the first three generations, the level of DNA damage was high, especially in the groups receiving higher doses of cadmium in the diet. In the fourth generation, a significant reduction in the level of DNA damage was observed, which could indicate that the desired stability of the genome was achieved. Surprisingly, however, in subsequent generations alternating increase and decrease of DNA stability was observed. The observed cycles of changing DNA stability were lasting longer in insects consuming food with a lower Cd content. Thus, a transient reduction in genome stability can be perceived as an opportunity to increase the number of variants which then undergo the selection. This phenomenon occurs faster if the severity of the stress factor is high, but low enough to allow the population to survive.
Biography:
Prof. Maria Augustyniak is working in the Institute of Biology, Biotechnology and Environmental Protection, University of Silesia in Katowice, Poland. Major scientific interests her are: aging theory, stress theory and the theory of natural selection under anthropogenic pressure; ecotoxicology; assessment of DNA stability under the influence of various environmental stress factors, including nanoparticles. Results of her works are published in prestigious journals, including: Carbon, Journal of Hazardous Materials, Fish & Shellfish Immunology, Chemosphere, Environmental Research, Scientific Reports, Environmental Pollution and many others.

  • Delta University for Science and Technology, Egypt
  • Title:Modulation of Wound Processing by the Effect of Roselle Extract through TGF-β Signaling Pathway
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Abstract:
Wound healing consists of an organized cascade of biochemical and cellular events that involve tissue repairs and regeneration. Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) content of polyphenols may participate by its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties necessary for wound healing. The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of HS loaded in ointment base applied topically to rats exposed to burning compared to standard Iruxol® ointment. Methodology: to assess wound healing potency, burn injury model was employed. Rats were divided into four groups, Group I: Normal topically applied with ointment base (Control). Group II: Burned rats were left without any treatment. Group III: Burned rats applied with topical Iruxol® ointment. Group IV: Burned rats topically applied with prepared HS extract ointment. The groups were treated with respective ointments three times through 24 hours. The wound tissues were collected to detect the oxidative stress and inflammatory effect in tissues as compared to control group. Histological analysis for tissue samples also were being endorsed the results by promoting collagen formation, re-epithelialization and angiogenesis. Results implicate that HS enhances the healing potential of the skin by stimulating the levels of biomarkers required for skin regeneration through its strong antioxidant in HS ointment applied group. In addition, HS suppressed the inflammatory effect induced by burning through its down regulation of TNF-α level. Moreover, it shows that HS topical treatment significantly reduces the hypertrophic scarring by its effect against TGF-β level. Altogether, these results suggest that HS is a valuable bioactive compound to use in wound healing and may be used with Iruxol® as synergistic product to accelerate wound processing.

Biography:
Dr. Rania Khalil has her experiences in molecular biology in improving the health and protection from diseases. Her papers based on expression of genes which develop new pathways for improving healthcare. She has written these papers after several trials in research, teaching and publishing. The basis is founded on comparing gene expression before and after treatment either with a drug, complementary medicine and or food supplement. This approach has different ways of focusing that may be correlated to genetically or environmentally point of view.

  • Zhejiang University School of Medicine, China
  • Title:Role of CD97 in Insulinoma Extracellular Vesicles Induced Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Islet β-like Cells
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Abstract:
Obtaining sufficient donor islet β-like cells is the key to islet transplantation for type 1 diabetes mellitus. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) are expected to be ideal sources to obtaining islet β-like cells, however the low differentiation rate is an urgent bottleneck that need to be solved. Our group demonstrate that extracellular vesicles (Evs) derived from insulinoma can differentiate BMMSCs into islet β-like cells, and exosomes (Exos), a core component of Evs, had higher differentiation rate than Evs. In addition, we show that CD97 overexpressed Exos had higher differentiation rate than that of CD97 knockdown Exos. Furthermore, we clarify that CD97 promotes differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into islet β-like cells through MAPK/Smad/Ngn3 pathway. Taken together, we demonstrate that insulinoma Evs, especially the Exos, were able to differentiate BMMSCs into islet β-like cells, and that CD97 plays a crucial role in the differentiation process.
Biography:
Dr. Chao Li (M.D. Ph.D.) is currently fellow of Department of Surgery,Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, School of Medicine. In 2011, he finished his bachelor training of clinical medicine at Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology. From 2011 to 2016, he received his M.D./Ph.D. education in Zhejiang University, School of Medicine, and undertook a half year visiting scholar training in the Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada. His research focuses on diabetes mellitus and malignant tumors of digestive system, specialized in the treatment of diabetes mellitus using extracellular vesicles derived from mesenchymal stem cells, as well as the metastatic mechanism of pancreatic cancer.

  • Louisiana State University, USA
  • Title:Aluminum-Stimulated Production of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the Human Gastrointestinal (GI)-Tract Microbiome-Resident Bacteroides Fragilis
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Abstract:
Gram-negative obligate anaerobic bacteria of the human GI-tract-microbiome and their immunogenic secretory products have significant potential to serve as a dynamic, life-long source of extremely potent pro-inflammatory enterotoxigenic compounds highly toxic to the central nervous system (CNS). These microbes and their secreted products: (i) are capable of generating a broad-spectrum of highly neurotoxic, pro-inflammatory and potentially pathogenic molecules; and (ii) these include a highly immunogenic class of amphipathic surface glycolipids known as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Bacteroides fragilis (B. fragilis), a commensal, Gram negative, non-motile, non-spore forming obligatory anaerobic bacillus, and one of the most abundant bacteria found in the human GI tract, produces a particularly pro-inflammatory and neurotoxic LPS (Bf-LPS). Bf-LPS: (i) is secreted from the B. fragilis outer membrane into the external-medium; (ii) can damage biophysiological barriers via cleavage of zonula adherens cell-cell adhesion proteins, thereby disrupting both the GI-tract barrier and the blood-brain barrier (BBB); (iii) is able to transit GI-tract barriers into the systemic circulation and cross the BBB into the human CNS; and (iv) accumulates within CNS neurons in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This presentation will provide evidence that the incubation of B. fragilis with aluminum sulfate [Al2(SO4)3] is a potent inducer of Bf-LPS. The results suggest for the first time that the pro-inflammatory properties of aluminum may not only be propagated by aluminum itself, but by a stimulation in the production of microbiome-derived Bf-LPS and other pro-inflammatory pathogenic microbial products normally secreted from human GI-tract-resident microorganisms.

  • Can Tho University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Vietnam
  • Title:Analysis of the Length Polymorphisms in Sequence-Tagged-Site sY1291 on Y Chromosome in Vietnamese men of Infertile Couples.
  • Time :

Abstract:
The current study aims to analyze the length polymorphisms in sequence-tagged-site (STS) sY1291 of the Y chromosome in Vietnamese men of infertile couples. All 322 DNA samples were amplified with the sY1291 primer by the quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) assay. DNA sequencing technique was employed to evaluate the accuracy of QF-PCR results. The study showed 273 out of 322 DNA samples had the presence of STS sY1291, accounted for 84.78%. The QF-PCR results showed that there were various lengths in STS sY1291: 507 bp, 512 bp, 523 bp and 527 bp. The most prevalent length in STS sY1291 was 507 bp (87.5%), the others were 512 bp (4.8%), 523 bp (4.8%) and 527 bp (2.9%). We found that the observed length polymorphisms derived from differences in the number of mononucleotide Thymine (T) repeats in its structure. It stretched from 22 T to 39 T. DNA sequencing results identified that the number of mononucleotide T repeats causes these polymorphisms. However, the pair-wise alignment between the obtained and reference sequence was 77%. It can be seen that the length polymorphisms in STS sY1291 observed in QF-PCR results was accurate but it is still difficult to sequence fragments with mononucleotide repeats.
Biography:
Dr. Cao Thi Tai Nguyen, was born in Quy Nhon, Vietnam. She received the B.A. degree in Biology from Quy Nhon University, in 2004, and the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in Biotechnology from Can Tho University, Vietnam, in 2010 and 2019, respectively. She joined Tai Furniture Company, Vietnam, as a secretary and helped ELICs volunteer teachers from 2005 to 2006 at Quy Nhon University. Since March 2006, she has been a lecturer at Department of Biology – Genetics, Can Tho University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Vietnam. My current research interests include molecular biology, cell biology and genetics.

  • Ludwik Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology & Experimental Therapy, Poland
  • Title:New Insights into MS Pathomechanisms: On the Track to Control Inflammation and Neurodegeneration
  • Time :

Abstract:
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disorder characterized by multifocal inflammatory infiltrates (T cells, B cells, macrophages) within the central nervous system (CNS) and concomitant degradation of myelin, oligodendrocytes and axons, along with reactive microgliosis. Disease background is thought to include two overlapping processes: polyphasic myelin destruction (inflammatory demyelination) and progressive axonopathy (neurodegeneration) with little capacity for repair. The pathology is generally believed to reflect autoimmune attack upon myelin auto-antigens but the mechanisms resulting in the escalation of the autoimmune response and leading to the damage of white and gray matter in the CNS have not been so far fully clarified.
Lipid antigens are substantial myelin components and they also may constitute potential candidates for autoimmune attack in MS. We have recently explored the seem to be role of bioactive lipids, particularly ceramide, in the pathomechanism of autoimmune demyelination in MS. Specifically, we examined TNF- and IFN- effect, the two Th1 pro-inflammatory cytokines known to be accumulated in MS brain, upon a human oligodendroglioma (HOG) cell line. Our results suggested an exosome-mediated new mechanism of synergistic cytotoxicity of TNF- and IFN-. Ceramide-laden exosomes, when released from stressed or cytokine-targeted oligodendrocytes in vivo, may “broadcast” the cell death signal and promote the immune response that occurs under demyelinating conditions in the CNS. For this reason exosomes offer new molecular insights into MS pathology and perhaps could be used in the future as bioactive markers for the disease activity. On the other hand, it is well known that ceramide play a central role in sphingolipids metabolism which intricate scenario with numerous potential therapeutic targets, e.g. “engineered” exosomes can be used as an efficient vehicles for delivery of therapeutic agents across the blood-brain barrier.
A complex and heterogeneous picture of MS immunopathology may suggest the presence of various immunoregulatory abnormalities in this disease. These may result from disturbed functional interactions of many cellular components of the immune system, especially regulatory T cells. Natural killer T (NKT) cells may perform major regulatory functions in immunity, however their function in MS is not yet fully understood. In our studies, we identified glycosphingolipid (GSL)-reactive CD1-restricted lymphocytes especially those of the NKT and NKR+ phenotype and with T cell regulatory functions. GSL-driven anergy of circulating lymphocytes in MS suggests that the altered immune response in MS is via robust invariant NKT (iNKT) activation with potent cellular and cytokine activities. Diverse GSLs including the endogenous myelin acetylated-galactosylceramides (FMCs) can drive activation critical to controlling CNS inflammation and fostering myelin repair. Rendering iNKT-cells hyporesponsiveness to an endogenous GSL is a novel insight into diseases manifesting aberrant iNKT-cell activation. Furthermore, the state of anergy following stimulation with the auto-antigen FMC-7 may have significant clinical implications, according to the theory of antigen-specific therapy of autoimmune diseases.
An equally important factor in the pathology of MS, apart from (sub)acute demyelination, is progressive axonal and neuronal damage, resulting in accumulating neurological deficit and disability. Earlier reports indicate that calpain has been implicated in MS autoimmune mechanism, including demyelination, axonal damage, loss of neurons and oligodendrocytes and modulation of proteins involved in apoptotic pathways. We hypothesized that this Ca2+ dependent cysteine protease plays a key regulatory role in immune activation of MS pathology and its deactivation (inhibition) causes remission with control of autoimmune inflammation and neurodegeneration. Our studies yielded new findings regarding the mechanism of progressive MS that have implications for potential treatment. Based on two primary culture models  rat and human  we identified calpain as a key neuron injury signal driving the toxic component of reactive microgliosis. Specifically, we determined that calpain, released upon neuron damage, activates microglia to produce reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide that are selectively toxic to neurons. Our findings indicate that damaged neurons themselves are culpable in propagating further neurotoxicity with pro-inflammatory signals to microglia. These studies provide much needed insight into the nature of progressive phase of MS, with emerging putative preventive and therapeutic options. These novel findings (e.g., targeting calpain inhibition) may provide valuable insight into the mechanisms by which Th1 cells elicit neurodegeneration and appear promising in the treatment of progressive types of MS but also other neurodegenerative disorders.
Biography:
Dr. Maria Podbielska had done her Habilitation from Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Poland in 2019,Ph.D from Institute of Immunology & Experimental Therapy Polish Academy of Sciences, Wroclaw, Poland in 2003,Master of Science & Engineer: Wroclaw University of Technology, Department of Chemistry, Wroclaw, Poland in 1997 and Professional Experience is from Ludwik Hirszfled Institute of
Immunology & Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, Wroclaw, Poland and Postdocs are 2012 and 2014-2016 Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA ,2010-2011 Heinrich Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany,2004-2010 Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA, USA.
Honors and Awards:
2016 Certificate of the Polish-American Fulbright Commission received at the Ministry of Science and Higher Education in recognition of merits to promote Polish science and culture and to strengthen friendships between the peoples of the Republic of Poland and the United States of America through participation in the program of Fulbright Senior Award 2015-2016.
2015 Fulbright Senior Award nomination by the Polish-U.S. Fulbright Commission approved by J. William Fulbright Foreign Scholarship Board, Washington, DC, USA.
2014 Fellowship award approved by the Kosciuszko Foundation, New York, NY, USA.
2011 Du Pré Grant award approved by the Multiple Sclerosis International Federation, London, United Kingdom.
2007 Wroclaw Medical University Rector’s award for scientific publication, conducted in collaboration between Medical University and IIET, published in 2006 in the journal of the highest IF value (Galactosylation of IgG from rheumatoid arthritis [RA] patients-changes during therapy; Glycoconj. J. 23, 463-471, 2006).
2003 Award for Ph.D. dissertation, Institute of Immunology & Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, Wroclaw, Poland.
Professional Memberships:
since 2016 Member of the Fulbright Scholar Alumni Program administered by the Council for International Exchange of Scholars, a division of the Institute of International Education, Washington, DC, USA
since 2015 Member of the Kosciuszko Foundation Research Alumni Program, Warsaw, Poland
since 2012 Member of the Multiple Sclerosis International Federation Research Alumni Program, London, United Kingdom
since 2008 Member, The International Society of Neuroimmunology
Selected Publications:
M. Podbielska, J. O’Keeffe, E. L. Hogan Autoimmunity in multiple sclerosis: role of sphingolipids, invariant NKT cells and other immune elements in control of inflammation and neurodegeneration J. Neurol. Sci. 385, 198-214, 2018.
N. M. Trager, J. T. Butler, J. Harmon, J. Mount, M. Podbielska, A. Haque, N.L. Banik and C.C. Beeson. A Novel Aza-MBP Altered Peptide Ligand for the Treatment of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis. Mol. Neurobiol. 55(1), 267-275, 2018.
M. Podbielska, Z.M. Szulc, E. Kurowska, E.L. Hogan, J. Bielawski, A. Bielawska, N.R. Bhat. Cytokine-induced release of ceramide-enriched exosomes as a mediator of cell death signaling in an oligodendroglial cell line. J. Lipid Res. 57(11), 2028-2039, 2016.
M. Podbielska, A. Das, A. W. Smith, A. Chauhan, S. K. Ray, J. Inoue, M. Azuma, K. Nozaki, E.L. Hogan and N.L. Banik. Neuron-Microglia Interaction Induced Bi- directional Cytotoxicity Associated with Calpain Activation. J. Neurochem. 139(3), 440-455, 2016.
J. O’Keeffe, M. Podbielska, E.L. Hogan. Invariant natural killer cells and their ligands: focus on multiple sclerosis. Immunology 145, 468-475, 2015.
M. Podbielska, N.L. Banik, E. Kurowska, E.L. Hogan. Myelin Recovery in Multiple Sclerosis: The Challenge of Remyelination. Brain Sci. 3, 1282-1324, 2013.
E.L. Hogan, M. Podbielska, J. O’Keeffe. Implications of lymphocyte anergy to glycolipids in multiple sclerosis (MS): iNKT cells may mediate the MS infectious trigger. J. Clin. Cell. Immunol. 4, 144, 2013.
C. Gately, M. Podbielska, T. Counihan, M. Hennessy, T. Leahy, A.P. Moran, E. L. Hogan, J. O’Keeffe. Invariant natural killer T-cell anergy of circulating lymphocytes to myelin polyacetylated-β-galactosyl-ceramides in multiple sclerosis. J. Neuroimmunol. 259 (1-2), 1-7, 2013.
M. Podbielska, H. Krotkiewski and E.L. Hogan. Signaling and regulatory functions of bioactive sphingolipids as therapeutic targets in multiple sclerosis. Neurochem. Res. 37, 1154-1169, 2012.
M. Podbielska, S.B. Levery and E.L. Hogan. The structural and functional role of myelin fast-migrating cerebrosides: pathological importance in multiple sclerosis. Clin. Lipidol. 6(2), 159-179, 2011.
M. Podbielska, S. Dasgupta, S.B. Levery, W.W. Tourtellotte, H. Annuk, A.P. Moran, E.L. Hogan. Novel myelin penta- and hexa-acetyl-galactosyl-ceramides: structural characterization and immunoreactivity in cerebrospinal fluid. J. Lipid Res. 51(6), 1394-1406, 2010.
M. Podbielska and E.L. Hogan. Molecular and immunogenic features of myelin lipids: incitants or modulators of multiple sclerosis? Mult. Scler. 15(9), 1011-1029, 2009.

  • USA
  • Title:Recent Developments in Cell-SELEX Technology for Aptamer Selection
  • Time :

Abstract:
SELEX technique is employed to select aptamers against wide range of targets. The in vitro method of aptamer selection using live cells as the target is referred as CELL-SELEX. The use of aptamers as therapeutic and diagnostic agents is rapidly evolving, selection techniques such as Cell-SELEX could be beneficial in identifying aptamers when the target is in its native conformation and without prior information of the cognate target, thereby bringing the aptamer development one step closer to the clinic. The presentation provides a comprehensive description on the development of aptamers through various cell-SELEX methods. In addition, it pinpoints the advantages and limitations of the cell-SELEX process and its variants. The given information can be valuable for the design and development of futuristic oligonucleotide based diagnostics and therapeutics work.
Biography:
Dr.Harleen Kaur has been in the pharmaceutical industry for almost 8 years and most recently led the analytics and drug product tech transfer projects for two biologics products while working at AstraZeneca, USA. Prior to this, she worked in R&D division of Fujitsu Asia Pte Ltd in Singapore where she worked on aptamer development and played an integral role in identifying and purifying aptamers against different protein targets in collaboration with National University of Singapore, Agency of Science Technology and Research Singapore, and Japanese diagnostic enterprise Sysmex. In her current role, she is leading a team of analytical scientists at Aurobindo Biologics and her responsibilities include the method development, method qualification and method transfer for different biosimilar products. she completed her PhD in chemical and biomolecular engineering department at National University of Singapore.

  • Utsunomiya University, Japan
  • Title:Melanocyte Activation Mechanisms and Rational Therapeutic Treatments of Solar Lentigos
  • Time :

Abstract:
To characterize the pathobiology of solar lentigos (SLs), analyses by semiquantitative RT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry revealed the upregulated expression of endothelin (EDN)-1/endothelin B receptors (EDNBRs), stem cell factor (SCF)/c-KIT, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α in the lesional epidermis, which contrasted with the downregulated expression of interleukin (IL) 1α. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that previous repeated UVB exposure triggers keratinocytes to continuously produce TNFα. TNFα then stimulates the secretion of EDNs and the production of SCF in an autocrine fashion, leading to the continuous melanogenic activation of neighboring melanocytes, which causes SLs. A clinical study of 36 patients with SLs for six months treated with an M. Chamomilla extract with a potent ability to abrogate the EDN1-induced increase in DNA synthesis and melanization of human melanocytes in culture revealed a significant improvement in pigment scores and color differences expressed as L values. Another clinical study using a tyrosinase inhibitor L-ascorbate-2-phosphate 3 Na (ASP) demonstrated that L values of test lotion (6% APS)-treated skin significantly increased in SLs and in non-lesional skin with a significantly higher ΔL value in SLs when compared with non-lesional skin. The sum of these findings strongly suggests that combined topical treatment with EDN signaling blockers and tyrosinase inhibitors is a desirable therapeutic choice for SLs.
Biography:
Dr. Genji Imokawa (Ph.D.-medicine) now is Professor of Utsunomiya University, Center for Bioscience Research and Education as well as Visiting Professor of Chubu University, Research Institute of Biological Functions and of Ohio University, Edison Biotechnology Institute. Board of Directors in Japanese Society for Ceramide Research and Japanese Medical Society for Skin Aging and Council member for Japanese Medical Society for Anti-Aging. His Research Activities: More than 175 original English papers including EMBO Journal, J Clinical Invest, J Cell Sci, Cancer Res, Am J Pathol, FASEB J, J Biol Chem, J Pathol and J Lipid Res; Research Field: Photo-aging/ Fibroblasts, Atopic Dermatitis/Sphingolipid Metabolism, Melanogenesis/Melanocyte Biology, Keratinization/Keratinocyte Biology.

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